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    Although the Julio-Claudian dynasty continued to rule the empire until the fall of his nephew Nero in AD 68, Caligula's death marked the official end of the Julii Caesares in the male line.

    Gaius Julius Caesar named in honor of his famous relative was born in Antium modern Anzio and Nettuno [2] on 31 August 12 AD, the third of six surviving children born to Germanicus and his second cousin Agrippina the Elder.

    Through Agrippina, Augustus was the maternal great-grandfather of Gaius. As a boy of just two or three, Gaius accompanied his father, Germanicus , on campaigns in the north of Germania.

    Suetonius claims that Germanicus was poisoned in Syria by an agent of Tiberius , who viewed Germanicus as a political rival. After the death of his father, Caligula lived with his mother until her relations with Tiberius deteriorated.

    The adolescent Caligula was then sent to live with his great-grandmother and Tiberius's mother Livia. In 31 AD, Caligula was remanded to the personal care of Tiberius on Capri , where he lived for six years.

    Caligula claimed to have planned to kill Tiberius with a dagger in order to avenge his mother and brother: Supposedly Tiberius knew of this but never dared to do anything about it.

    In 33 AD, Tiberius gave Caligula an honorary quaestorship , a position he held until his rise to emperor. When Tiberius died on 16 March 37 AD, his estate and the titles of the principate were left to Caligula and Tiberius's own grandson, Gemellus , who were to serve as joint heirs.

    Although Tiberius was 77 and on his death bed, some ancient historians still conjecture that he was murdered. Caligula accepted the powers of the principate as conferred by the senate and entered Rome on 28 March amid a crowd that hailed him as "our baby" and "our star", among other nicknames.

    Caligula's first acts were said to be generous in spirit, though many were political in nature. In October 37 AD, Caligula fell seriously ill, or perhaps was poisoned.

    He soon recovered from his illness, but many believed that the illness turned the young emperor toward the diabolical: Perhaps his illness reminded him of his mortality and of the desire of others to advance into his place.

    She is said to have committed suicide, although Suetonius hints that Caligula actually poisoned her. He had his father-in-law Marcus Junius Silanus and his brother-in-law Marcus Lepidus executed as well.

    His uncle Claudius was spared only because Caligula preferred to keep him as a laughing stock. His favourite sister Julia Drusilla died in 38 AD of a fever: He hated being the grandson of Agrippa and slandered Augustus by repeating a falsehood that his mother was actually conceived as the result of an incestuous relationship between Augustus and his daughter Julia the Elder.

    In AD 38, Caligula focused his attention on political and public reform. He published the accounts of public funds, which had not been made public during the reign of Tiberius.

    He aided those who lost property in fires, abolished certain taxes, and gave out prizes to the public at gymnastic events.

    He allowed new members into the equestrian and senatorial orders. Perhaps most significantly, he restored the practice of democratic elections.

    During the same year, though, Caligula was criticized for executing people without full trials and for forcing his supporter Macro to commit suicide.

    According to Cassius Dio , a financial crisis emerged in AD Ancient historians state that Caligula began falsely accusing, fining and even killing individuals for the purpose of seizing their estates.

    Historians describe a number of Caligula's other desperate measures. In order to gain funds, Caligula asked the public to lend the state money. The current and past highway commissioners were accused of incompetence and embezzlement and forced to repay money.

    However, some historians have shown skepticism towards the large number of sesterces quoted by Suetonius and Dio. According to Wilkinson, Caligula's use of precious metals to mint coins throughout his principate indicates that the treasury most likely never fell into bankruptcy.

    A brief famine of unknown extent occurred, perhaps caused by this financial crisis, but Suetonius claims it resulted from Caligula's seizure of public carriages; [46] according to Seneca, grain imports were disrupted because Caligula re-purposed grain boats for a pontoon bridge.

    Despite financial difficulties, Caligula embarked on a number of construction projects during his reign. Some were for the public good, though others were for himself.

    Josephus describes Caligula's improvements to the harbours at Rhegium and Sicily , allowing increased grain imports from Egypt, as his greatest contributions.

    Caligula completed the temple of Augustus and the theatre of Pompey and began an amphitheatre beside the Saepta. At Syracuse , he repaired the city walls and the temples of the gods.

    In 39, Caligula performed a spectacular stunt by ordering a temporary floating bridge to be built using ships as pontoons , stretching for over two miles from the resort of Baiae to the neighbouring port of Puteoli.

    Caligula had two large ships constructed for himself which were recovered from the bottom of Lake Nemi around The ships were among the largest vessels in the ancient world.

    The smaller ship was designed as a temple dedicated to Diana. The larger ship was essentially an elaborate floating palace with marble floors and plumbing.

    A number of factors, though, aggravated this feud. The Senate had become accustomed to ruling without an emperor between the departure of Tiberius for Capri in AD 26 and Caligula's accession.

    Caligula reviewed Tiberius's records of treason trials and decided, based on their actions during these trials, that numerous senators were not trustworthy.

    Soon after his break with the Senate, Caligula faced a number of additional conspiracies against him.

    In AD 40, Caligula expanded the Roman Empire into Mauretania and made a significant attempt at expanding into Britannia — even challenging Neptune in his campaign.

    The conquest of Britannia was fully realized by his successors. Mauretania was a client kingdom of Rome ruled by Ptolemy of Mauretania. Caligula invited Ptolemy to Rome and then suddenly had him executed.

    Details on the Mauretanian events of 39—44 are unclear. Cassius Dio wrote an entire chapter on the annexation of Mauretania by Caligula, but it is now lost.

    There seems to have been a northern campaign to Britannia that was aborted. Modern historians have put forward numerous theories in an attempt to explain these actions.

    This trip to the English Channel could have merely been a training and scouting mission. When several client kings came to Rome to pay their respects to him and argued about their nobility of descent, he allegedly cried out the Homeric line: Caligula began appearing in public dressed as various gods and demigods such as Hercules , Mercury , Venus and Apollo.

    A sacred precinct was set apart for his worship at Miletus in the province of Asia and two temples were erected for worship of him in Rome.

    Caligula had the heads removed from various statues of gods located across Rome and replaced them with his own.

    Caligula's religious policy was a departure from that of his predecessors. According to Cassius Dio , living emperors could be worshipped as divine in the east and dead emperors could be worshipped as divine in Rome.

    Caligula needed to quell several riots and conspiracies in the eastern territories during his reign. Aiding him in his actions was his good friend, Herod Agrippa , who became governor of the territories of Batanaea and Trachonitis after Caligula became emperor in AD The cause of tensions in the east was complicated, involving the spread of Greek culture , Roman Law and the rights of Jews in the empire.

    Caligula did not trust the prefect of Egypt, Aulus Avilius Flaccus. Flaccus had been loyal to Tiberius, had conspired against Caligula's mother and had connections with Egyptian separatists.

    Herod Antipas confessed and Caligula exiled him. Agrippa was rewarded with his territories. The Governor of Syria, Publius Petronius , fearing civil war if the order were carried out, delayed implementing it for nearly a year.

    In Rome, another statue of himself, of colossal size, was made of gilt brass for the purpose. Philo of Alexandria and Seneca the Younger , contemporaries of Caligula, describe him as an insane emperor who was self-absorbed, angry, killed on a whim, and indulged in too much spending and sex.

    While repeating the earlier stories, the later sources of Suetonius and Cassius Dio provide additional tales of insanity.

    They accuse Caligula of incest with his sisters, Agrippina the Younger , Drusilla , and Livilla , and say he prostituted them to other men.

    The validity of these accounts is debatable. In Roman political culture, insanity and sexual perversity were often presented hand-in-hand with poor government.

    Caligula's actions as emperor were described as being especially harsh to the senate, to the nobility and to the equestrian order.

    The situation had escalated when, in 40 AD, Caligula announced to the Senate that he planned to leave Rome permanently and to move to Alexandria in Egypt, where he hoped to be worshiped as a living god.

    The prospect of Rome losing its emperor and thus its political power was the final straw for many. Such a move would have left both the Senate and the Praetorian Guard powerless to stop Caligula's repression and debauchery.

    With this in mind Chaerea convinced his fellow conspirators, who included Marcus Vinicius and Lucius Annius Vinicianus , to put their plot into action quickly.

    According to Josephus, Chaerea had political motivations for the assassination. On 22 January 41 AD Suetonius gives the date as 24 January , Cassius Chaerea and other guardsmen accosted Caligula as he addressed an acting troupe of young men beneath the palace, during a series of games and dramatics being held for the Divine Augustus.

    The Germanic guard, stricken with grief and rage, responded with a rampaging attack on the assassins, conspirators, innocent senators and bystanders alike.

    The cryptoporticus underground corridor beneath the imperial palaces on the Palatine Hill where this event took place was discovered by archaeologists in The senate attempted to use Caligula's death as an opportunity to restore the Republic.

    After a soldier, Gratus , found Claudius hiding behind a palace curtain, he was spirited out of the city by a sympathetic faction of the Praetorian Guard [] to their nearby camp.

    Claudius became emperor after procuring the support of the Praetorian Guard. He ordered the execution of Chaerea and of any other known conspirators involved in the death of Caligula.

    He was buried within the Mausoleum of Augustus ; in , during the Sack of Rome , the ashes in the tomb were scattered.

    The history of Caligula's reign is extremely problematic as only two sources contemporary with Caligula have survived — the works of Philo and Seneca.

    Philo's works, On the Embassy to Gaius and Flaccus , give some details on Caligula's early reign, but mostly focus on events surrounding the Jewish population in Judea and Egypt with whom he sympathizes.

    Seneca's various works give mostly scattered anecdotes on Caligula's personality. Seneca was almost put to death by Caligula in AD 39 likely due to his associations with conspirators.

    At one time, there were detailed contemporaneous histories on Caligula, but they are now lost. Additionally, the historians who wrote them are described as biased, either overly critical or praising of Caligula.

    A few of the contemporaneous historians are known by name. Fabius Rusticus and Cluvius Rufus both wrote condemning histories on Caligula that are now lost.

    Fabius Rusticus was a friend of Seneca who was known for historical embellishment and misrepresentation. Caligula's sister, Agrippina the Younger , wrote an autobiography that certainly included a detailed explanation of Caligula's reign, but it too is lost.

    Agrippina was banished by Caligula for her connection to Marcus Lepidus , who conspired against him.

    As Barrett notes, only too much of what written accounts remain were written by people who intensely disliked him.

    What Barrett does is discard the opinion and stick to the known facts. Once he does this, there is insufficient remaining, so he has to interpret what he knows and make reasonable guesses.

    On the whole, I think Barrett does an excellent job; the account is plausible, and in the end the reader has a fair account of what happened.

    The problem with Gaius is that there are so many contradictions, nevertheless Barrett's account is at least in account with the writings of Josephus and Suetonius, which is more than can be said for a number of other accounts.

    I have carried out a certain amount of independent research on Gaius, and while there are inevitable parts of his life that really cannot be properly accounted for and validated, I believe this book is about as good as anyone is going to get on this topic.

    This is a very scholarly, in-depth book on one of the more controversial Emperors in Roman history. For millennia he has been seen as an insane and murderous monster who slept with his sister and tried to make his horse a consul.

    But was he really as bad as the sources tell us? Not according to Barrett, and anyone reading the book is sure to find his explanations convincing.

    This book is hardly a whitewash however. The picture that one forms is of an arrogant and highly suspicious young man with a nasty sense of humor who was determined to see how far his powers could go.

    Hardly a flattering portrait, but not the demented maniac so familiar in popular representations. Barrett points out many points when he made intelligent decisions which match the best of Emperors.

    As a look at his basic character the book is a success in showing what was almost certainly the personality of this rather pathetic man. Now for the bad side.

    The book is written in a dense and confusing scholarly style which is extremely difficult to follow. This wouldn't be so bad in a scholarly book except that at the very beginning he explains that his purpose is to write it for a more general audience.

    In that he utterly fails. As a scholarly work it works, though clunky, but as a popular biography it fails to impress. The majority of the book is dedicated to examining the minutiae of what Caligula did throughout his reign.

    His personality is covered mostly in the opening and concluding chapters. Throughout the rest of the book he seems to be just ahead of you, you follow what he does but you never really get a feel for who he was.

    Nonetheless, the man's life was interesting. It's just a shame that this book wasn't placed in the hands of a better writer.

    Barrett provides an excellent, balanced view of Caligula in his work. Much like the title of the book implies, he attributes the emperor's downfall to his own corruption and flaws, not insanity.

    Barrett uses the ancient sources well by analyzing the style of the historian and dismissing the details that are too extreme and those that do not make sense.

    The book flows from chapter to chapter quite well, never being dull or boring. The book is written in such a way that it falls between being for a general audience and those with prior knowledge, but leans more toward the academic side.

    This isn't necessarily a bad thing though! Seems to be a great read but unfortunately the smell of cigarrete was just unberable.

    Would be great if seller could mention if books come from smoker homes. A thousand questions about Caligula remain unanswered in this book, but it's hardly the author's fault, given the scanty information he has to examine.

    What, for example, was the nature of the illness from which Caligula emerged changed, and not for the better? Clearly, the illness was serious "and caused widespread consternation throughout the empire" p Yet there are dozens of medical guesses and no clear way to determine which one assailed Caligula.

    Most interestingly, what drove Caligula? Was he truly as scandalous as some of the reports that have come down to us?

    Take the questions surrounding the sexuality of Caligula. Did he actually engage in incest with one, or perhaps, all of his sisters?

    At any rate, he appears to have had sex with both men and women, as did all the other Roman emperors of the period with the exception of Claudius.

    It is maddeningly hard to decide how to even describe the sexuality of people living in the ancient world. Their perceptions of sexuality differed so greatly from our own.

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